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【周末讲坛】人体血管10万公里,哪段都不能出问题,防治关键要记牢!

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rentineixueguanzhongduo,youshujuxianshi,rentixueguanzonggongyueyou250wanyigen,zongzhang10wanduogongli,ruguoquanbushouweixiangjie,keyiraodiqiuchidaoliangquanban。ruguoanjiegoufenlei,xueguankefenweidongmai、jingmaihemaoxixueguan,zheixiexueguanyunsongzhehanyouyangfenheyangqidexueye,ziyangzherentidemeiyigexibao。benqizhoumojiangtan,yidianjingyaoqingguojiakejijinbujianghuodezhe、haijunjunyidaxuefushuzhanghaiyiyuanxueguanwaikejingzaipingjiaoshoujituanduijieshaochangjiandexueguanxingjibing,yijiyufanghezhiliaofangfa。



认识血管的“堵”“鼓”“瘀”


jinxienian,gezhongyuanyindaozhidexueguanxingjibingyufachangjian。zongdelaishuo,zheixiexueguanbingkejiandanguinawei“du”、“gu”、“yu”sandalei。



●堵:

血管狭窄 复通为主


“堵”即血液流动不通畅,不管是哪一段血管,只要“堵塞”了就得复通,而且尽量使用血管腔内微创复通法。


1

心脏瓣膜“堵”了


jiandanlaishuo,yidianjingdexinzangyousijian“fang”、liangdu“qiang”hesishan“men”。zhengchangqingkuangxia,“qiang”shijuedui“mifeng、fangshui”de,er“men”yeshiyangedanxiangkaifangde。danyouxierenkenengchuxian“men”guanbuyan(banmoguanbibuquan)yiji“men”kaibuda(banmoxiazhai)dengwenti。


亿电竞jinxienian,xinzangzhudongmaibanmojibingdefabinglvyesuizhedongmaiyinghuazengjiadequshizhujianzenggao。tebieshinianguoguxidelaonianhuanzhe,xinzangbanmo,youqishixinzangzhudongmaibanmoshangleijilehenduoyouzhi。youzhizhujiangaihua,xingchengdongmaiyinghuabankuai。zaizheixiedongmaiyinghuabankuaidexingchengguochengzhong,zhudongmaibanmodebanyezhujianbianhou。banyezhijianzhujiannianzaiyiqi,daozhi“xinmen”wufadakai。


zheizhongqingkuanggaizenmebanni?


haijunjunyidaxuefushuzhanghaiyiyuanxueguanwaikexinzangbanmobingqiangneiweichuangzhenzhizhongxintuanduikaizhande“weichuanghuanban”xinjishu,yigaiyuanlaikaidadaodeshoushufangfa,liyongjubumazuidaitiquanshenmazui,yongchuancizhendaitishoushudao,jiangyuanxianbingsundebanmodangzuo“menkuang”,jiangxindaorudebanmoyongqiunangmaodingzaizheige“menkuang”shang,zuoweixin“xinmen”,congershihuanzheyanzhongxiazhaidao4haomide“poxinmen”,zhongxinhuifuweizhengchang2.5limizuoyoude“xinxinmen”。chule“xinmen”du,haiyouyizhongqingkuangshi“xinmen”demenkuangtale,yejiushizhudongmaibanguanbibuquan。zheizhongjibingyeshishiyongqiangneiweichuangjishujinxingshoushuzhiliao。


2

颈部血管“堵”了


亿电竞jingdongmaixiazhaidezuichangjianyuanyinshidongmaizhouyangyinghua。zheixieyinghuabankuairongyizaochengshuansai。jingdongmaixiazhaichengdujiaoqingshi,huanzhekenengmeiyourenhezhengzhuang。raner,dangjingdongmaichuxianzhongzhongduyishangdeyanzhongxiazhaihou,rongyidaozhiquexuexingnaogengsidefasheng,jifa“dazhongfeng”“xiaozhongfeng”deng,bixujishiqingyupaidu。duiyuyanzhongdejingdongmaixiazhai,yidianjingjianyihuanzheyaojishijinxingjingdongmaineimoqiechushuhejingdongmaizhijiachengxingshudengweichuangshoushuzhiliao。qianzheshibazaochengdudedongxi(bankuai)qiechudiao,houzheshifangzhijiadaojingbuxueguanzhong,baxueguanchengkai。


3

下肢动脉“堵”了


xiazhidongmaiyinghuabisaizhenghuanzhexiazhixueguandusaihoujiuhuichuxian“jianxiexingboxing”,jizouyiduanlu,tuijiuhuitong,bixuxieyixie,daitengtonghaozhuanhou,cainengjixuzou。jiaoyanzhongdejianxiexingboxing、jingxitong、zubupifupokui、zhiduanhuaiju,yijijixingjiazhongdexiazhidongmaiyinghuabisaihuanzhe,junyingjijijinxingshoushu“shutong”,zhongjianzhongduandexiazhixuegong。jingguoshoushuzhiliaohou,xuegongyidanhuifu,tengtong、boxing、palengdengzhengzhuangkelikexiaoshi,yiyoudepifuhuaijuhekuiyangyegengrongyiyuhe。cizhongjibingshoushuzhiliaozhuyaoxingqiangneiweichuangzhiliao。


●鼓  

血管长“包” 微创修复


xueguande“gu”xiangzixingchetaigupaoyiyangguqilaidexuebao,changjianyudongmailiu、zhudongmaijiacengdengjibing。dongmailiuzhuyaoshixueguanjubuzifaxingpengdaruqiqiuzhuang。zhudongmaijiacengzhuyaoshizhidongmailidexueyecongxueguanbineimosiliekoujinrudaolexueguanbizhongmo,xingchenglexueguanbineideyigexindexuebao。qizhuyaoweihaijiushihuifashengpoliedachuxuezaochenghuanzhecusi。faxianshangshujibinghouyingganjinxiufu,dangebude。


1997nian,bizhesuozaituanduichuangxinxingdizaiguoneikaizhanleshoulizhudongmailiuheshoulizhudongmaijiacengqiangneiweichuanggejueshoushu。youqishiduiyuzhudongmaijiacengjibing,zhubuyiweichuangliaofazhengfulejiangzhudongmai、zhudonggong、shengzhudongmaijiacengdengshijienanti。zhudongmailiuhuanzhepoliedachuxueshizuiweixiongxiande,chucizhiwaihaikenengzaochengjubuyapoheyuanchushuansai。bizhetuanduihaiduiyuzhudongmaijiacengchuangxinxingditichulezhudongmaijingshi3n3vfenxingfa,bingzaicijichushang,tichusizhongjingshiweichuangshoushushushi。suizheqiangneiweichuangzhiliaodefazhan,yuelaiyueduodecileiwentijiangyoukaifu、kaixiongshoushuzhuanweiqiangneiweichuangzhiliao。




●瘀  

静脉血栓 不得不防


70岁老人坐飞机4小时为何被送上120?


“瘀”就是亿电竞常说的血液不流通、积血,主要指静脉血管里有血栓。先来看一个病例。久居喀什的李老太今年刚刚70岁,老人家坐飞机到上海看儿女。刚到上海不久,她的左腿突然肿了起来,老人家没在意,仍蹲在地上收拾衣物。可是李老太做梦都没想到“死神”正在向她逼近。就在老人家一起身的时候,突然感觉自己上不来气,眼前发黑,就一头摔倒在地、人事不省,幸好是女儿在旁边立即呼叫120急救车转送到笔者所在医院。


nianlingyuedaderenxueliusuduyuehuanman,70suiderenjiubi50suiderenxueliusuduman,xueliuman,xuejiurongyiyu。qici,xianglilaotaizhangshijiandejingjicang,xiangduizhidongxiazhichuyuququzhuangtaiqieshixiaotuixiachui,xueyeyeshichuyuxiangduiyudezhuangtai。4gexiaoshidefeixing、xiaxiaodejingjicangcushixiazhiwufahuodong,yezengjialexueyeyuzhiyaosu,feijishangheshuishaoxueyeyouhuixiangduinongchou,zheijiuyouduoleyigeyuzhidezhuli。yuzhidaoyidingchengdujiuhenrongyibianchengle“yu”,xueyeyiyujiuxingchenglexueshuan。yuzhidexueyeningjiezaiyiqixingchengtuankuaidusaixueguanjiuxingchenglexueshuan。


亿电竞lilaotaixiadun、qili,yiyongli,xueshuantuoluo,xueshuanyanzhexiaqiangjingmaijingguoxinzangchongxiangfeidongmaijiufashenglefeigengsi。haozaililaotaibeixunsusongdaoleyiyuan,jingguokuaisuwenzhenjiancha,lilaotaibeizhenduanweijixingzuoxiazhishenjingmaixueshuanxingchengjifafeidongmaishuansai。yishenglijiweitajinxingfeidongmaijixiazhijingmaiweichuangqushuanshu。zuihou,lilaotaizhongyuzhuanweiweian,huifuruchang。



血管出问题了,怎么吃?怎么动?



亿电竞jiankangyinshiduiyuxueguanchulewentiderenlaishuozhiguanzhongyao,putongrenyekeyiciweizhidaokongzhipingshideyinshi,duiyuyufangxueguanxingwentiyouhendadebangzhu。youyuxueguanjibingzuichangchuxianzaixinnaoxueguan,yinci,yidianjingsuoshuodejiankangyinshiyezhuyaoshijiangdixuetang、jiangdixueya、jiangdixuezhidengjigefangmian。


●降糖饮食:


  • 1.饮食上要注意一日三餐七成饱,粗细搭配,少吃多餐,不吃过甜、辛辣的食品。


  • 2.摄入适量水果。因水果中含有较多的糖类,食用后消化吸收快,可导致血糖迅速升高。食用水果时,减少或扣除主食的量,以保持总热量不变。此外,不宜每餐都吃水果,一般认为在两餐之间(血糖下降时)少量食用较为合适;可多食用猕猴桃、黄瓜、圣女果等。


  • 3.少食米饭,多吃粗粮,亿电竞如莜麦面、热麦片、玉米面等。这些粗粮含多种微量元素、维生素B和食用纤维。


  • 4.不宜饮酒。


  • 5.shaoshufuhuangniaoleijiangtangyaodehuanzhe,yinjiuhouyichuxianxinhuang、qiduan、mianjiahongzaodengbuliangfanying,ershiyongleyidaosudehuanzhekongfuyinjiuyiyinqidixuetang。


微信图片_20200316165755.jpg


●降压饮食:


  • 1.控制能量摄入至关重要,建议患者吃复合糖类,如淀粉、玉米等,少吃葡萄糖、果糖及蔗糖,因这类糖属于单糖,易引起血压升高。


  • 2.一日三餐最好定时定量,避免暴饮暴食。


  • 3.适量摄入蛋白质。高血压病患者每日蛋白质的量为每千克体重1克为宜每周吃2次~3次鱼类亿电竞、蛋白质,可改善血管弹性和通透性,增加尿钠排出,从而降低血压。


  • 4.多吃含钾、钙丰富而含钠低的食品,如土豆、茄子、海带、莴笋。


  • 5.多吃含钙高的食品,如牛奶、酸奶、虾皮。


  • 6.少吃肉、糖类,因为肉汤中含氮浸出物增加,能够促进体内尿酸增加,加重心、肝、肾脏的负担。


  • 7.忌烟酒。吸烟者需立即戒烟。不饮烈性酒可饮少量葡萄酒或者红酒品茶忌浓茶,特别是睡觉前忌饮浓茶和咖啡,一方面影响睡眠,另一方面导致血压升高。


  • 8.最重要的是要限制食盐摄入,根据最新的标准,每日食盐应控制在5克以下亿电竞。适当地减少盐分的摄入有助于降低血压,减少体内的钠水潴留。



●降脂饮食:


记住,每日胆固醇摄入量要低于总能量的50%。


  • 1.多吃富含维生素、无机盐和纤维素的食物亿电竞,如鲜果和蔬菜,能够降低三酰甘油,促进胆固醇排泄。

  • 亿电竞2.duochiyixieyoujiangzhizuoyongdeshiwu,rusuanniunai、chaye、shanzha、douleizhipin、xianggu、caotou、muer、qiezi、dasuan、yangcong、yuleideng。

  • 3.控制总热量:禁食蔗糖、果糖、水果糖、蜂蜜、含糖点心、罐头。


微信图片_20200316165755.jpg

●教您一个简单易学的血管保健操


yundongshiyufangxueguanjibingfashengdeyouxiaoshouduan。haijunjunyidaxuefushuzhanghaiyiyuanxueguanwaikechuangshirenjingzaipingjiaoshougenjuduonianlinchuangjingyan,zichuang“zhilihouyangbaojiancao”,zhuyaogaikuowei:xingershangzheweizhiling,xingerzhongzheweizhiqi,xingerxiazheweizhijin。neimejutiruhezuoni?kanshipingengrongyixue!




  • 亿电竞diyibu:qishi,shentizhili,shuangjiaofenkai,yujianbutongkuan。


  • dierbu:shuangshouwoquan,shuangbeiyouxiaxiangshangyonglibaidong,jingxiongqianshizijiaochahou,dakaishouzhang,zuoyoushouxiangliangcezuidachengdubaikai,toujingxiongyaohouyang,shenhuxi,zhongxinhouyi。jiaohougenlidi,tongshikouya、tigangyici。


  • 亿电竞disanbu:shuangbeiyuanlufanhui,daodafuqianshizijiaochahouyongliwoquan,shuangshouzuidaxianduxianghoubai,tongshishentiqianqing,tuqi,xiaofushousuo。


yishangsanbuweiyizu,10zuweiyigedanyuanlianxi,xunxujianjin、getihuajianchi。



最常见的腿上“小蛇”,你还在忽视吗?


微信图片_20200316165745.jpg


日常生活中,亿电竞常常见到很多人腿上有弯弯曲曲的“小蛇”盘踞,这些“小蛇”是什么?需要看医生吗?原来,这些青紫色的“小蛇”是曲张的静脉。


●是否严重得看病程


亿电竞youfajingmaiquzhangdeyuanyinzhuyaoyouliangzhong:yishixiantianxingjingmaibiboruohejingmaibanmogongnengbuquan。ershixiazhijingmaiyalizengjia,youyujingmaineiyalizenggao,chaoguolejingmaibichengshounengli,jingmaijiuhuiguchulai。


亿电竞jingmaiquzhangyaojinma?haiyaocongtadebingchengshuoqi。jingmaiquzhangdazhikefenweiwendingqihebingfazhengqi。wendingqipingjunzai20nianzuoyou,kuozhang、quzhangdejingmaixingsiqiuyin,jinguanfangaimeiguan,danjibenmeiyouhuojinyouqingdubushi。dansuizhebingbianhuanmanjinzhan,duoshubingrenhuijinrubingfazhengqi,chuxianyuxuexingpiyan、jingmaiyan、xueshuan、chuxuedengbingfazheng,zuizhongfazhanzhi“laolanjiao”。


●高度警惕深静脉血栓


youyizhongjibingyekeyinqijingmaiquzhangde“xiaoshe”tui,jiushishenjingmaixueshuan。shenjingmaixueshuandeweihaifeichangyanzhong,youqishiduiyulaonianren,xueliusudujiaoman,xueliumanjiurongyiyuzhi。ruherangxueyejianshaoyuzhini?dajiakezaipingshishenghuozhongzhuyiyixiajidian。


  • 一是多喝水,稀释血液,亿电竞这样血液就不会处在一个黏稠的状态。

  • 二是尽量避免长时间相对制动。

    ruguoxiazhizhangshijianchuyuququzhuangtaiqiexiaotuixiachui,xiangduiyuxiazhitaigaohuopingwotiweilaishuo,xiachuishijingmaidexueyejiuyaokefuewaidezhonglizuoyongzaihuidaoxinzang, xueyeyeshichuyuxiangduiyuzhidezhuangtai。yuzhidexueyeningjiezaiyiqixingchengtuankuai,xingchengxueshuan,xueshuanyidanxingchengjiuhuiyuejiyueduo。gudingzaijingmaineibidexueshuanyidancongxiazhijingmaibishangtuoluo,jiuhuiyanzhexueliufangxiangyidong,yejiushishunzhejingmaixueliuhuiliudaoxinzang。dangran,zheixieshuanzibingbuhuizhibuyuxinzang,ershibeixinzangpairufeidongmai,xingchengfeishuansai。xiaoxiaodefeishuansaishiyizhongjiweiweizhongdebingfazheng,keyidaozhicusi。



●两招延缓静脉曲张


  • 1.对于腿上已经有轻微静脉曲张的人来说,要经常抬高下肢亿电竞,通过重力作用使血液自然流回心脏。需要注意的是,坐着抬脚效果并不佳,平卧后抬高腿部,并使腿部超过心脏平面才有效。经常自下往上撸小腿肚也可促进静脉回流。


  • 2.可穿医用弹力袜,促进静脉血液回流,减轻静脉血液瘀滞,缓解酸胀不适。






文:海军军医大学附属长海医院血管外科   景在平   庄郁峰   姜峰   王宏飞   裴轶飞

编辑:管仲瑶

审核:曹政



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